International politics began with the emergence of the first organized states thousands of years ago. Global politics is more recent--it appeared about five centuries ago when the European powers began to mesh the world's far corners together through conquest and trade. Today we live on a planet characterized by globalization or the ever more complex economic, cultural, technological, and environmental interdependence among all people everywhere. Until recently globalization’s development was slow. Although countries increasingly traded, allied, and negotiated with each other, the divisions among them far outweighed the ties, and nations often settled their conflicts with war or the threat of war. However, since 1945, despite or more likely because of the “Cold War,” globalization has developed rapidly and profoundly. Today all humans are formally tied to all others through their country's membership in the United Nations and numerous other international organizations, along with the immediate benefits of global trade, telecommunications, travel, and the internet. Yet globalization has a dark side—it destroys as well as creates jobs, wealth, and lives, while every human lives under the shadow of potential nuclear and ecological extinction. How did humanity reach a stage of history so filled with such an array of prospects and perils? Globalization: A Short History of the Modern World explores that all powerful force for good and evil from the Renaissance through today and beyond.
This book explores how the traditional ideal of Chinese manhood - the "wen" (cultural attainment) and "wu" (martial prowess) dyad - has been transformed by the increasing integration of China in the international scene. It discusses how increased travel and contact between China and the West are having a profound impact; showing how increased interchange with Western men, for whom "wu" is a more significant ideal, has shifted the balance in the classic Chinese dichotomy; and how the huge emphasis on wealth creation in contemporary China has changed the notion of "wen" itself to include business management skills and monetary power. The book also considers the implications of Chinese "soft power" outside China for the reconfigurations in masculinity ideals in the global setting. The rising significance of Chinese culture enables Chinese cultural norms, including ideals of manhood, to be increasingly integrated in the international sphere and to become hybridised. The book also examines the impact of the Japanese and Korean waves on popular conceptions of desirable manhood in China. Overall, it demonstrates that social constructions of Chinese masculinity have changed more fundamentally and become more global in the last three decades than any other time in the last three thousand years.
Memoir of Jean Stebinger, born in Rhame, North Dakota, population 300, in 1922. She has traveled extensively and lived with her husband and children in Egypt, Lebanon, and Indonesia.
Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes (1879) is one of Robert Louis Stevenson's earliest published works and is considered a pioneering classic of outdoor literature. Stevenson was in his late 20s and still dependent on his parents for support. His journey was designed to provide material for publication while allowing him to distance himself from a love affair with an American woman of which his friends and families did not approve and who had returned to her husband in California. Travels recounts Stevenson's 12-day, 120-mile solo hiking journey through the sparsely populated and impoverished areas of the Cevennes mountains in south-central France in 1878. The terrain with its barren rocky heather-filled hillsides he fotened compared to parts of Scotland. The other principal character is Modestine, a stubborn, manipulative donkey he could never quite master. It is one of the earliest accounts to present hiking and camping outdoors as a recreational activity. It also tells of commissioning one of the first sleeping bags, large and heavy enough to require a donkey to carry. Stevenson is several times mistaken for a peddler, the usual occupation of someone traveling in his fashion. Some locals are horrified that he would sleep outdoors and suggest it is dangerous to do so because of wolves of robbers. Stevenson provides the reader with the philosophy behind his undertaking: For my part, I travel not to go anywhere, but to go. I travel for travel's sake. The great affair is to move; to feel the needs and hitches of our life more clearly; to come down off this feather-bed of civilization, and find the globe granite underfoot and strewn with cutting flints. Alas, as we get up in life, and are more preoccupied with our affairs, even a holiday is a thing that must be worked for. To hold a pack upon a pack-saddle against a gale out of the freezing north is no high industry, but it is one that serves to occupy and compose the mind. And when the present is so exacting who can annoy himself about the future?"
This volume of collected essays by eminent scholars in the fields of International Trade and Investment have been written and edited in honour of H. Peter Gray. Over a career in economics spanning almost 40 years, Peter Gray has been a prolific writer. He has made significant contributions and syntheses in a variety of subfields in international economics; the interaction of national economics and the foreign sector, causes and results of international financial flows, the economics of foreign direct investment, the assignment of policy tools for domestic and international objectives, and the macroeconomic impact of trade policy, among others. He has directly influenced scores of graduate students who continue to carry his passion for inclusiveness of variables in the economic analysis of the causes, effects, and relative importance of shifts in domestic and international economic (and social) variables. Contributors to this volume include John Dunning, John Hagedoorn, Thomas Pugel, Ingo Walter and Gabriel Benito.